Most prostatitis symptoms are caused by complications with the pelvic and bladder muscles as well as irritation of the prostate itself. Common symptoms include lower back pain, pain in the testicles, penis, perineum (skin between the scrotum and the anus), and pain and difficulty when urinating.
Prostatitis is a swelling of the prostate gland caused by various reasons which typically causes pain and secondary complications. A bacterial infection of the urinary tract or of the blood is the most common cause of an infection of the prostate.
An acute infection develops suddenly and symptom onset is fairly rapid while a chronic infection can develop over a prolonged period causing chronic discomfort and impairment of function.
In some cases prostatitis caused by a bacterial infection can hinder fertility by inflammation of the epididymis which stores sperm.
- lower back pain
- perineum (skin between the scrotum and the anus) pain
- pain in the testicles and penis
- pain/burning during urination
- frequent urination
- pain during erection
- difficulty maintaining an erection
- pain during defecation
- blood in the urine
- pain during ejaculation
Diagnosis is typically through physical examination and observation of symptoms. A rectal-digital exam can identify an enlarged prostate, painful to the touch. Samples of urine and penile secretions can help identify bacteria which may be causing the prostatitis.
Treatment is typically aimed at relieving symptoms and eliminating the cause of the inflammation of the prostate. If the cause is not due to a bacterial infection then treatment options can be of limited success.
Muscle relaxants or techniques to relieve muscle spasms in the pelvis, bladder and prostate may be effective in treating symptoms. Antibiotics are sometimes effective in relieving symptoms. Surgical removal of the prostate may be considered in severe, chronic, unmanageable cases.