Some diabetes insipidus symptoms mirror those of diabetes mellitus, a related disease. However, the cause and underlying mechanisms are entirely different.
Problems with levels of the hormone, antidiuretic hormone, which controls the amount of water in the bloodstream and body, cause the disease.
The hormone is produced by the hypothalamus and is stored for eventual release by the pituitary gland.
Multiple reasons (physical damage, infection, spontaneous) may affect the production or release of the hormone.
The common diabetes insipidus disease symptoms are excessive thirst and excessive urine production.
Diabetes insipidus disease symptoms:
- excessive thirst
- excessive urination (often during the night)
- low blood pressure
Diagnosis is through urine and blood tests, and typically a water deprivation test.
If antidiuretic hormone injection relieves the common symptoms, diagnosis is confirmed. If the symptoms continue, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is suspected.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a different form of the disease caused by abnormalities in the kidney.
Treatment is typically by hormone replacement therapy, either antidiuretic hormone, related forms of the hormone, or drugs that stimulate production of antidiuretic hormone.