Common bladder infection symptoms (cystitis) are a burning pain during urination and frequent, intense urges to urinate.
Bladder infections occur less frequently in men than in women. The proximity of the female urethra to the vagina and anus, as well as the relatively short length of the female urethra contribute to this elevated incidence in women. Pregnancy is also a contributing factor to the development of bladder infections.
Typically cystitis begins with an infection in the urthra which then ascends into the bladder. Conditions which hinder the flow of urine or obstruct the flow entirely can lead to increased incidence of bladder infections.
Often in elderly individuals no symptoms are experienced during a bladder infection. The condition is only uncovered during unrelated testing.
A related condition, interstitial cystitis, is an inflammation of the bladder causing similar symptoms to a bladder infection. However, interstital cystitis is not due to a bacterial infection.
Bladder infection symptoms:
- burning pain during urination
- frequent, urgent need to urinate
- pain and tenderness in lower back
- pain and tenderness above pubic bone
- frequent, urgent need to urinate at nighttime
- cloudy urine
- blood in urine
Diagnosis is typically through examination and observation of symptoms. Urine testing can confirm the diagnosis as well as determine the type of bacteria causing the infection. In severe bladder infections the cause of the infection is typically also investigated.
Treatment is typically with antibiotics. Certain drugs can also help alleviate the distressing symptoms such as the fequent need to urinate.
Surgical treatment may be necessary to correct or alleviate complications which caused the bladder infection.